Category: Overthewire maze

06.11.2020

Overthewire maze

By Daran

OverTheWire hosts many security war games that range from Bandit for absolute beginners to intermediate games such as Maze or Vortez. This week we look at Behemoth which lies between Bandit and Vortez in terms of difficulty.

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It focuses on exploits involving buffer overflows, race conditions, and privilege esclation. The goal therefore is to gain the privileges of another user and then read their password file to login to that account fully. We can see from the file permissions that behemoth is an executable program that uses setuid. Typically, when a user runs an executable, all commands are ran with that users permissions.

Setuid can be used to run a command with the permissions of the user that created the executable. Therefore, since behemoth1 created the executable behemoth0, we can potentially use that to bring up a shell and read the behemoth1 password file as the behemoth1 user that has permission to read it.

I typically like to run the executable with and without arguments passed to it to see how it responds quickly. From there, we might need to disassemble the binary for futher hints. From the console input above, we can see I tried running the executable a few different ways.

The OverTheWire server that hosts this challenge comes with radare2 which can be used to disassemble and debug the program. It can also perform various checks on the binary to determine if security settings are enabled or disabled. After starting up r2 with the binary loaded, we can run iI to get some information about the binary:. If we are lucky, the password could be a plaintext value within the data.

The command iz will print out any strings.

overthewire maze

Perhaps we try inputting these strings and seeing if that gets us further. We can see there are multiple system calls happening such as printf, scanf, strlen, and maybe the most interesting being memfrob. I was unfamiliar with this system call so I did a quick manpage lookup on the function. Then a strcmp occurs between our input and the encrypted string. The first word 32 bits or 4 bytes is the address of memory that contains the string to be encrypted. OK looking good.

We could have also just set a breakpoint right at the strcmp function to see both strings in memory. For Behemoth1, I started this level the same way as level 0 - running the executable a few times with various inputs to get an idea of its output.

I decided to jump straight into radare with the binary and search for strings and disassemble the code. The disassembly for main is interesting though. This means we can attempt a stack buffer overflow. If you are unfamiliar with what a stack is or how a buffer overflow works, please see.

This does a pretty good job at explaining the basics of each.The goal of this level is for you to log into the game using SSH. The host to which you need to connect is bandit. The username is bandit0 and the password is bandit0. Once logged in, go to the Level 1 page to find out how to beat Level 1.

The password for the next level is stored in a file called readme located in the home directory. Use this password to log into bandit1 using SSH.

Whenever you find a password for a level, use SSH on port to log into that level and continue the game. The password for the next level is stored in a file called spaces in this filename located in the home directory.

The password for the next level is stored in the only human-readable file in the inhere directory. The password for the next level is stored in the file data. Then copy the datafile using cp, and rename it using mv read the manpages! Note: localhost is a hostname that refers to the machine you are working on. The password for the next level can be retrieved by submitting the password of the current level to port on localhost.

The password for the next level can be retrieved by submitting the password of the current level to port on localhost using SSL encryption. The credentials for the next level can be retrieved by submitting the password of the current level to a port on localhost in the range to First find out which of these ports have a server listening on them.

There is only 1 server that will give the next credentials, the others will simply send back to you whatever you send to it.

We can see that we get 5 open ports. There are 2 files in the homedirectory: passwords. The password for the next level is in passwords. The password for the next level is stored in a file readme in the homedirectory. Unfortunately, someone has modified. To gain access to the next level, you should use the setuid binary in the homedirectory. Execute it without arguments to find out how to use it.

There is a setuid binary in the homedirectory that does the following: it makes a connection to localhost on the port you specify as a commandline argument.

It then reads a line of text from the connection and compares it to the password in the previous level bandit If the password is correct, it will transmit the password for the next level bandit NOTE: Try connecting to your own network daemon to see if it works as you think. We can either use tmux or connect to bandit20 with another terminal. A program is running automatically at regular intervals from cron, the time-based job scheduler. NOTE: Looking at shell scripts written by other people is a very useful skill.This file was deleted.

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CTF: Bandit Level 0 Walkthrough

Backstage OTW. Nothing to see here, please kindly move on to. Contact Us. If you have a problem, a question, a suggestion, or just want to hang.

If you appreciate our wargames community and would like to contribute, contact us about it! If you appreciate our wargames community and would like to contribute. Keeping the servers running costs us several thousands of dollars each year. If it were not for the financial backing of a couple. Keeping the servers running costs us several thousands of dollars each.Suggested order to play the games in. Each shell game has its own SSH port, information about how to connect to each game using SSH, is provided in the top left corner of the page.

Keep in mind that every game uses a different SSH port. This game, like most other games, is organised in levels.

Finishing a level results in information on how to start the next level.

overthewire maze

The page for Level 1 has information on how to gain access from Level 0 to Level 1. All levels in this game have a page on this website, and they are all linked to from the side menu on the left of this page.

You will encounter many situations in which you have no idea what you are supposed to do. The purpose of this game is for you to learn the basics. Part of learning the basics is reading a lot of new information. There are several things you can try when you are unsure of how to continue:.

Press q to quit the man command. Second, if there is no man page, the command might be a shell built-in. Also, your favourite search engine is your friend. Learn how to use it! I recommend Google.

Lastly, if you are still stuck, you can join us on IRC. Begin with Level 0, linked at the left of this page.

OverTheWire: ‘Leviathan’ Solutions 1-8

Good luck! Note for VMs: You may fail to connect to overthewire.

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If this does not solve your issue, the only option then is to change the adapter to Bridged mode. Bandit Level 0. Level Goal. As I said, very basic which is great as you can not feel daunted at all going into it, I have a fair amount of Linux experience from a previous job and because I use it a lot at home so the first few for me was easy. We need to connect to the game using SSH so simple enough as the command is just SSH, we need to use the username bandit0 to connect to bandit.Each shell game has its own SSH port, information about how to connect to each game using SSH, is provided in the top left corner of the page.

Keep in mind that every game uses a different SSH port. This game, like most other games, is organised in levels. Finishing a level results in information on how to start the next level. The page for Level 1 has information on how to gain access from Level 0 to Level 1.

OverTheWire - Behemoth Solutions 0-3

All levels in this game have a page on this website, and they are all linked to from the side menu on the left of this page. You will encounter many situations in which you have no idea what you are supposed to do.

The purpose of this game is for you to learn the basics. Part of learning the basics is reading a lot of new information. Press q to quit the man command. Second, if there is no man page, the command might be a shell built-in. Note for VMs: You may fail to connect to overthewire. If this does not solve your issue, the only option then is to change the adapter to Bridged mode. As I said, very basic which is great as you can not feel daunted at all going into it, I have a fair amount of Linux experience from a previous job and because I use it a lot at home so the first few for me was easy.

We need to connect to the game using SSH so simple enough as the command is just SSH, we need to use the username bandit0 to connect to bandit. SSH bandit0 bandit.

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I did toy with doing walkthroughs for 0 to 5 then 5 to 10 etc but I like the idea of having each in its own post. Skip to content. Learn how to use it! I recommend Google. Begin with Level 0, linked at the left of this page.Unfortunately, the moves aren't very accurate.

Thus, your character ends up being a bit off-center from time to time. This is tricky for programmatic maze traversal.

This function loops through the following actions until we reach the target:. The drunk moving function attempts a move to an adjacent cell, using the keystrokes from above. If it seems that we can't reach the target i. To decide whether we should turn right or left, we count the number of pixels in the left and right half of the 3D view.

If there are more pixels in the right half, we are most likely staring at a wall to our right and need to turn left.

overthewire maze

If enabled, it chooses the turn intensity at random instead of fixed slight turns only. This helps to break loops if the pixel-count strategy gets stuck. Initially, we have incomplete information about the maze because we always only see a small area around us.

Thus, we need a strategy that can just explore the maze without making unnecessary moves.

overthewire maze

Since we know our goal coordinates we instead choose the path that lies closest to that as a slight optimization. However, since we see a small region around us at all time, we should avoid exploring dead-ends if we clearly see them. The animation above nicely shows our strategy in action. Walls are blue, where light blue indicates virtual walls that were placed there by our dead-end filling algorithm. You can see that the algorithm backtracks from a dead-end as soon as we spot it on the map.

If our character is inside the dead-end, we obviously don't close the entrance but we place a virtual wall right in front of us instead. This strategy solved the maze reliably in almost all scenarios. Rarely, if the algorithm has to backtrack too much we sometimes ran into a server timeout.

The flag was printed to the terminal once we reached the target. Actually, our code crashes at that point because it would have expected a 3D view of the maze. Thus, we exfiltrated that string from a Wireshark dump instead of changing the parser. If you are interested, you can peek into the source code at [ github.

Happy Holidays! This function loops through the following actions until we reach the target: 1. I don't remember.Today, we will play a war-game called Bandit. It has a collection of 34 levels. OverTheWire Organization hosts this war-game. Absolute Beginners are the target audience. It teaches the basics of most Linux commands in a fun and challenging way. To play this war-game, go to the Bandit website by clicking here.

OverTheWire — Bandit Walkthrough Overthewire — Bandit Walkthrough Find the password file.

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It will give us access to the next level. This is a pretty simple level. It teaches us to connect to a host using SSH. This is going to teach players the usage of SSH command. We got the required information from reading the instruction page. We used the above information to login using ssh as shown in the given image.

OverTheWire – Bandit Walkthrough (1-14)

Time to move in on the next level. Now, from the bandit0 shell, we need to find the password for logging as the next user. To find that password, we are going to list files in the directory. Our target is to find a file named readme. After finding that file, we need to read the password stored inside that file.

We use the ls command to list the files in the current directory. We found the readme file. Now to read the password we will use the cat command. After that, we are going to use the password to login into next level using SSH. We are informed that the password for the next level is stored inside a file named - hyphen. So, to find it we use the ls command. Now comes the part where we have to read the file.

So, we will prefix the command with the path.

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Since we found the password for the user bandit2. We will use it to get an SSH connection as bandit2. We are informed that the password for the next level is stored inside a file named spaces in this filename.

So, we will write the name of the file in quotes, this will help us to read the password stored as shown in the given figure. Since we found the password for the user bandit3.

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We will use it to get an SSH connection as bandit3. We are informed that the password for the next level is stored inside a directory named inhere.